Giordano’s internationalization pattern by entry year. *The numbers next to each bar describe the entry year and the number of stores in each market as of 2013 (e.g., entry year/the number of stores). **Middle East expansion was happened after the first entry to the Middle East markets. The entry to Middle East includes Saudi Arabia, UAE, Iran, Kuwait, Georgia, and others, and the Middles East expansion is the entries to Bulgaria, Armenia, Algeria, Kazakhstan, and others. ***The entries to certain countries are not presented in the figure as their entry years were unclear. According to the sources, the company additionally has 151 stores in Indonesia, 120 in Thailand, and 18 in Myanmar recently, in addition to the Pattern 3.