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International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research

Table 3 Measurement items and exploratory factor analysis results

From: Determinants of consumer attitudes and re-purchase intentions toward direct-to-consumer (DTC) brands


Factor loadings


Composite reliability

Cronbach’s alpha

Co-creation (Cao et al. 2005)





 DTC brands have interactive feedback mechanism between customer and business



 DTC brands offer personalization features



 DTC brands have empathy with customers’ problems



 DTC brands are very concerned about my welfare



 DTC brands allow me to provide direct input to the brand



Cost-effectiveness (Fornell et al. 1996; Lamberton and Rose 2012)





 For the given price, I rate the DTC brand’s offer as good



 For the given quality of the DTC brand’s product, I rate the price as good



Website attractiveness (Cao et al. 2005)





 I find the DTC brand’s website attractive



 I find the DTC brand’s website appealing



 I find the DTC brand’s website engaging




 I find the DTC brand’s website gets me excited



 I find the DTC brand’s website fun



 I find the DTC brand’s website entertaining



Sustainability (Park and Kim 2016)





 DTC brand adopts environmentally friendly production practices



 DTC brand’s clothes are produced with a minimum effect on the environment (e.g., no gases, low carbon footprint) and animals



 DTC brand’s clothes are made from sustainable materials such as organic cotton and not be synthetic



 DTC brand’s products are made under safe and healthy working conditions, without child labor or sweatshops



 DTC brand pays fair wage for factory workers and raw material suppliers



 DTC brand gives back to the communities in which it does business



Brand uniqueness (Franke and Schreier 2008)





 I perceive the DTC brand as highly unique



 The DTC brand is one of a kind



 The DTC brand is really special



Social media engagement (Baldus et al. 2015; Lamberton and Rose 2012)





 DTC brand’s social media is my critical connection for new and important information about the brand and its products



 DTC brand’s social media keeps me on the leading edge of information about the brand



 When I want up-to-date information about this brand, I look to DTC brand’s social media



 DTC brand’s social media is the best way to stay informed about new developments with this brand



 Engaging in DTC brand’s social media allows me to be part of a group of like-minded people



 Engaging in DTC brand’s social media allows me to belong to a group of people with similar interests



Innovativeness (Kunz et al. 2011)





 DTC brand is dynamic



 DTC brand is very creative



 DTC brand launches new products and creates market trend all the time



 DTC brand is a pioneer in its category



 DTC brand constantly generates new ideas



 DTC brand has changed the market with its offer



 DTC brand is an advanced-forward looking firm



Attitude (Ajzen 1991)





 All things considered, I find shopping from DTC brands to be a wise move



 All things considered, I think purchasing from DTC brands to be a positive thing



 All things considered, I think shopping from DTC brands is a good thing



 Overall, buying products from DTC brands makes sense



Re-purchase Intention (Bhattacherjee 2001)





 All things considered, I expect to continue purchase from DTC brand often in the future



 I can see myself buying from DTC brand more frequently in the future



 I can see myself increasing my purchase from DTC brand if possible



 It is likely that I will frequently buy products from DTC brand in the future