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International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research

Table 3 Measurement items and exploratory factor analysis results

From: Determinants of consumer attitudes and re-purchase intentions toward direct-to-consumer (DTC) brands

Items Factor loadings AVE Composite reliability Cronbach’s alpha
Co-creation (Cao et al. 2005)   .658 .906 .870
 DTC brands have interactive feedback mechanism between customer and business .793    
 DTC brands offer personalization features .828    
 DTC brands have empathy with customers’ problems .810    
 DTC brands are very concerned about my welfare .809    
 DTC brands allow me to provide direct input to the brand .819    
Cost-effectiveness (Fornell et al. 1996; Lamberton and Rose 2012)   .846 .916 .820
 For the given price, I rate the DTC brand’s offer as good .920    
 For the given quality of the DTC brand’s product, I rate the price as good .920    
Website attractiveness (Cao et al. 2005)   .718 .939 .921
 I find the DTC brand’s website attractive .770    
 I find the DTC brand’s website appealing .858    
 I find the DTC brand’s website engaging .879 .   
 I find the DTC brand’s website gets me excited .839    
 I find the DTC brand’s website fun .870    
 I find the DTC brand’s website entertaining .865    
Sustainability (Park and Kim 2016)   .721 .940 .923
 DTC brand adopts environmentally friendly production practices .837    
 DTC brand’s clothes are produced with a minimum effect on the environment (e.g., no gases, low carbon footprint) and animals .860    
 DTC brand’s clothes are made from sustainable materials such as organic cotton and not be synthetic .867    
 DTC brand’s products are made under safe and healthy working conditions, without child labor or sweatshops .842    
 DTC brand pays fair wage for factory workers and raw material suppliers .865    
 DTC brand gives back to the communities in which it does business .829    
Brand uniqueness (Franke and Schreier 2008)   .878 .956 .931
 I perceive the DTC brand as highly unique .930    
 The DTC brand is one of a kind .943    
 The DTC brand is really special .938    
Social media engagement (Baldus et al. 2015; Lamberton and Rose 2012)   .822 .970 .964
 DTC brand’s social media is my critical connection for new and important information about the brand and its products .893    
 DTC brand’s social media keeps me on the leading edge of information about the brand .915    
 When I want up-to-date information about this brand, I look to DTC brand’s social media .902    
 DTC brand’s social media is the best way to stay informed about new developments with this brand .903    
 Engaging in DTC brand’s social media allows me to be part of a group of like-minded people .913    
 Engaging in DTC brand’s social media allows me to belong to a group of people with similar interests .918    
Innovativeness (Kunz et al. 2011)   .680 .937 .921
 DTC brand is dynamic .812    
 DTC brand is very creative .836    
 DTC brand launches new products and creates market trend all the time .826    
 DTC brand is a pioneer in its category .818    
 DTC brand constantly generates new ideas .859    
 DTC brand has changed the market with its offer .794    
 DTC brand is an advanced-forward looking firm .827    
Attitude (Ajzen 1991)   .759 .926 .894
 All things considered, I find shopping from DTC brands to be a wise move .820    
 All things considered, I think purchasing from DTC brands to be a positive thing .893    
 All things considered, I think shopping from DTC brands is a good thing .883    
 Overall, buying products from DTC brands makes sense .888    
Re-purchase Intention (Bhattacherjee 2001)   .840 .955 .936
 All things considered, I expect to continue purchase from DTC brand often in the future .882    
 I can see myself buying from DTC brand more frequently in the future .928    
 I can see myself increasing my purchase from DTC brand if possible .938    
 It is likely that I will frequently buy products from DTC brand in the future .918