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International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research

Table 3 Measurement items and exploratory factor analysis results

From: Determinants of consumer attitudes and re-purchase intentions toward direct-to-consumer (DTC) brands

Items

Factor loadings

AVE

Composite reliability

Cronbach’s alpha

Co-creation (Cao et al. 2005)

 

.658

.906

.870

 DTC brands have interactive feedback mechanism between customer and business

.793

   

 DTC brands offer personalization features

.828

   

 DTC brands have empathy with customers’ problems

.810

   

 DTC brands are very concerned about my welfare

.809

   

 DTC brands allow me to provide direct input to the brand

.819

   

Cost-effectiveness (Fornell et al. 1996; Lamberton and Rose 2012)

 

.846

.916

.820

 For the given price, I rate the DTC brand’s offer as good

.920

   

 For the given quality of the DTC brand’s product, I rate the price as good

.920

   

Website attractiveness (Cao et al. 2005)

 

.718

.939

.921

 I find the DTC brand’s website attractive

.770

   

 I find the DTC brand’s website appealing

.858

   

 I find the DTC brand’s website engaging

.879

.

  

 I find the DTC brand’s website gets me excited

.839

   

 I find the DTC brand’s website fun

.870

   

 I find the DTC brand’s website entertaining

.865

   

Sustainability (Park and Kim 2016)

 

.721

.940

.923

 DTC brand adopts environmentally friendly production practices

.837

   

 DTC brand’s clothes are produced with a minimum effect on the environment (e.g., no gases, low carbon footprint) and animals

.860

   

 DTC brand’s clothes are made from sustainable materials such as organic cotton and not be synthetic

.867

   

 DTC brand’s products are made under safe and healthy working conditions, without child labor or sweatshops

.842

   

 DTC brand pays fair wage for factory workers and raw material suppliers

.865

   

 DTC brand gives back to the communities in which it does business

.829

   

Brand uniqueness (Franke and Schreier 2008)

 

.878

.956

.931

 I perceive the DTC brand as highly unique

.930

   

 The DTC brand is one of a kind

.943

   

 The DTC brand is really special

.938

   

Social media engagement (Baldus et al. 2015; Lamberton and Rose 2012)

 

.822

.970

.964

 DTC brand’s social media is my critical connection for new and important information about the brand and its products

.893

   

 DTC brand’s social media keeps me on the leading edge of information about the brand

.915

   

 When I want up-to-date information about this brand, I look to DTC brand’s social media

.902

   

 DTC brand’s social media is the best way to stay informed about new developments with this brand

.903

   

 Engaging in DTC brand’s social media allows me to be part of a group of like-minded people

.913

   

 Engaging in DTC brand’s social media allows me to belong to a group of people with similar interests

.918

   

Innovativeness (Kunz et al. 2011)

 

.680

.937

.921

 DTC brand is dynamic

.812

   

 DTC brand is very creative

.836

   

 DTC brand launches new products and creates market trend all the time

.826

   

 DTC brand is a pioneer in its category

.818

   

 DTC brand constantly generates new ideas

.859

   

 DTC brand has changed the market with its offer

.794

   

 DTC brand is an advanced-forward looking firm

.827

   

Attitude (Ajzen 1991)

 

.759

.926

.894

 All things considered, I find shopping from DTC brands to be a wise move

.820

   

 All things considered, I think purchasing from DTC brands to be a positive thing

.893

   

 All things considered, I think shopping from DTC brands is a good thing

.883

   

 Overall, buying products from DTC brands makes sense

.888

   

Re-purchase Intention (Bhattacherjee 2001)

 

.840

.955

.936

 All things considered, I expect to continue purchase from DTC brand often in the future

.882

   

 I can see myself buying from DTC brand more frequently in the future

.928

   

 I can see myself increasing my purchase from DTC brand if possible

.938

   

 It is likely that I will frequently buy products from DTC brand in the future

.918