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International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research

Table 1 Direct measurement items and three-dimensional indirect measurement items

From: Abdominal fat ratio estimation equation by abdominal type in elderly women

No Measurement items Measurement methods
Direct measurement items
1 Height item Stature Vertical distance from floor to vertex
2 Waist height The vertical distance from the natural waist level (the natural waistline between the top of the hip bones and the lower ribs) to the ground with the subject standing upright
3 Circumference item Chest circumference The maximum horizontal circumference measured during normal breathing with the subject standing upright and the tape-measure passed over the shoulder blades (scapulae), under the armpits (axillae), and across the chest nipples
4 Bust circumference The maximum horizontal circumference measured during normal breathing with the subject standing upright and the tape-measure passed over the shoulder blades (scapulae), under the armpits (axillae), and across the nipples
5 Underbust circumference The horizontal circumference of the body just below the breasts
6 Waist circumference The circumference of the natural waistline between the top of the hip bones (iliac crests) and the lower ribs, measured with the subject breathing normally and standing upright with the abdomen relaxed
7 Waist circumference (Omphalion) Horizontal circumference passing anterior waist (omphalion), both lateral waists (omphalion), and posterior waist (omphalion), measured during natural breathing
8 Hip circumference Horizontal circumference at the level of buttock protrusion
9 Weight item Body weight Weight of body
10 Body composition measurement item Body fat (kg) Measured by InBody 230
11 Abdominal fat ratio of Inbody Measured by InBody 230
3D indirect measurement items
1 Circumference item Abdomen circumference The maximum horizontal abdomaen measured during normal breathing
2 Width item Waist width Horizontal distance between lateral waists
3 Abdomen width Horizontal distance at the level of abdominal protrusion
4 Hip width Horizontal distance between the most protrudent parts of the right and left hips in sitting posture
5 Thickness item Waist thickness Lateral trunk thickness at the level of anterior waist
6 Abdomen thickness Lateral trunk thickness at the level of abdominal protrusion
7 Hip thickness Lateral trunk thickness at the level of buttock protrusion