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International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research

Table 3 Crisis response strategies of Situational Crisis Communication Theory

From: Global fashion retailers’ responses to external and internal crises during the COVID-19 pandemic

Response option Response strategy Details of the strategy
Deny Response Option Attack the accuser Crisis manager confronts the person or group claiming that something is wrong with the organization
The organization threatened to sue those who claim that a crisis occurred
Denial Crisis manager asserts that there is no crisis
The organization says that no crisis event occurred
Scapegoat Crisis manager blames some person or group outside of the organization for the crisis
The organization blames the supplier for the crisis
Diminish Response Option Excuse Crisis manager minimizes organizational responsibility by denying intent to do harm and/or claiming inability to control the events that triggered the crisis
The organization says that it did not intend for the crisis to occur and that accidents happen as part of the operation of any organization
Justification Crisis manager minimizes the perceived damage caused by the crisis
The organization says the damage and injuries from the crisis were very minor
Deal Response Option Ingratiation Crisis manager praises stakeholders and/or reminds them of past good works done by the organization
The organization thanks stakeholders for their help and reminds stakeholders of the organization’s past effort to help the community and to improve the environment
Concern Crisis manager expresses concern for the victims
The organization expresses concern for the victims
Compassion Crisis manager offers money or other gifts to the victims
The organization says that it felt bad that the crisis incident occurred
Regret Crisis manager indicates the organization feels bad about the crisis
The organization says that it felt bad that the crisis incident occurred
Apology Crisis manager indicates that the organization takes full responsibility for the crisis and asks stakeholders for forgiveness
The organization publicly accepts full responsibility for the crisis and asks stakeholders to forgive the mistake