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International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research

Table 2 Absorbed energy and skin prediction burn time of fabric systems for upper, middle and lower sensors in the hot water splash test (85 °C)

From: Can common finishing treatments used in chef jacket fabrics improve protection against scald injury?

Finish Structure No. of layers Absorbed energy (kJ m−2) Second degree burn Third degree burn
Upper Middle Lower Upper Middle Lower Upper Middle Lower
Regular Plain 1 249.5 (13.4) 212.7 (15.3) 217.7 (12.7) 1.4 (0.5) 3.4 (0.3) 3.5 (0.8) 21.5 (3.7) NB NB
2 259.9 (6.5) 208.1 (18.1) 191.0 (20.0) 2.3 (0.6) 5.2 (2.3) 8.9 (2.0) 24.6 (4.0) NB NB
3 271.3 (9.4) 216.1 (9.8) 213.9 (17.0) 2.8 (0.3) 7.2 (1.0) 7.0 (0.6) 26.3 (1.9) NB NB
Twill 1 250.3 (22.0) 203.2 (16.8) 207.1 (12.7) 3.2 (1.9) 5.0 (1.2) 6.0 (1.9) 27.0 (9.5)a NB NB
2 242.4 (15.8) 160.6 (24.5) 165.9 (22.2) 5.3 (1.4) 9.4 (0.6) 10.5 (0.6) 31.4 (7.9)c NB NB
3 227.6 (55.0) 152.4 (50.9) 147.7 (55.3) 7.0 (2.8) 12.6 (4.7)b 16.5 (7.1)b NB NB NB
Water Plain 1 239.0 (12.1) 199.6 (12.2) 211.3 (7.4) 1.9 (0.3) 4.4 (1.0) 4.5 (0.2) 25.2 (7.1) NB NB
2 247.8 (7.2) 192.9 (19.9) 199.2 (14.3) 3.1 (0.6) 7.6 (2.5) 7.9 (1.8) 28.6 (5.1) NB NB
3 243.7 (5.7) 157.8 (18.3) 158.9 (14.3) 5.0 (0.6) 11.7 (1.6) 13.2 (1.7) 46.3 (10.9)b NB NB
Twill 1 248.4 (16.6) 211.1 (15.6) 212.2 (13.4) 2.5 (1.4) 4.8 (2.0) 4.9 (0.7) 30.1 (11.0) 31.2d NB
2 253.5 (11.6) 181.9 (20.3) 177.6 (4.9) 4.5 (1.2) 8.5 (0.7) 10.0 (0.3) 27.8 (2.9)b NB NB
3 228.6 (34.8) 133.6 (31.7) 141.0 (25.3) 7.9 (0.9) 15.5 (2.6)b 15.1 (0.9)b NB NB NB
Soil Plain 1 237.9 (11.8) 183.2 (25.7) 202.8 (10.4) 2.2 (0.3) 5.9 (2.3) 4.2 (1.2) 22.9 (5.2) NB NB
2 234.8 (13.3) 153.5 (18.0) 157.7 (8.8) 4.2 (0.3) 6.5 (1.2) 7.2 (0.5) 30.3 (5.9)b NB NB
3 212.2 (9.0) 131.4 (15.9) 135.3 (13.0) 7.0 (1.1) 12.2 (1.8) 12.0 (1.4) NB NB NB
Twill 1 258.2 (4.7) 212.3 (7.2) 219.8 (3.2) 1.8 (0.4) 3.9 (0.9) 4.4 (0.5) 20.9 (1.7) NB NB
2 285.1 (16.1) 219.2 (11.9) 214.6 (10.0) 2.7 (0.5) 7.2 (1.3) 8.4 (1.0) 23.8 (3.1) NB NB
3 291.4 (7.3) 217.5 (13.5) 199.9 (18.0) 4.2 (0.3) 10.9 (0.7) 13.2 (1.0) 29.3 (2.0) NB NB
Teflon® Plain 1 190.1 (5.9) 170.6 (9.6) 172.8 (11.9) 3.1 (0.5) 3.9 (0.7) 4.6 (0.6) NB NB NB
2 153.2 (8.2) 135.8 (12.4) 133.0 (2.4) 5.4 (0.5) 7.7 (1.8) 8.4 (0.8) NB NB NB
3 125.4 (4.8) 116.4 (7.0) 112.7 (7.2) 8.8 (0.5) 11.1 (1.5) 12.2 (0.9)a NB NB NB
Twill 1 184.9 (6.7) 168.0 (8.1) 159.6 (4.8) 3.5 (0.6) 4.3 (0.7) 5.0 (0.6) NB NB NB
2 140.0 (14.5) 127.5 (9.2) 120.6 (7.5) 6.7 (1.0) 8.3 (1.0) 9.6 (0.9) NB NB NB
3 111.9 (10.7) 101.3 (8.5) 99.8 (11.1) 11.3 (1.0)a 14.1d NB NB NB NB
  1. Regular regular finish or no treatment, Water water repellent finish, Soil soil release finish, Teflon ® Teflon® finish or combined water/stain repellent finish, NB no burn was reported throughout the 60 s of the test
  2. a Mean and SD are based on 4 replicates as 1 replicate did not meet the 2nd or 3rd degree burn criteria
  3. b Mean and SD are based on 3 replicates as 2 replicates did not meet the 2nd or 3rd degree burn criteria
  4. c Mean and SD are based on 2 replicates as 3 replicates did not meet the 2nd or 3rd degree burn criteria
  5. d Mean value is reporting 1 replicate only as 4 replicates did not meet the 2nd degree burn criteria