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International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research

Table 3 Different variables of textile substrates that can affect the polymer–textile adhesion

From: Development and testing of material extrusion additive manufactured polymer–textile composites

Textile substrate properties and structure List of variables Options Characteristics or descriptions Refs.
Fibre types Plant Cotton Cool, soft, and comfortable; absorbs and releases respiration quickly; durable but wrinkles easily Elliot (2015), Korger et al. (2016), Mpofu et al. (2019), Pei et al. (2015)
Linen Woven from the stems of flax; two-times stronger than cotton; absorbs and releases perspiration quickly; lightweight; non-stretchable and wrinkles easily
Animal Wool Ranges from scratchy to very soft; absorbs 30% of its weight in moisture; absorbs and releases moisture quickly; dirt and flame resistant; stronger when dry; performs as an insulator
Silk Versatile, soft, and comfortable; strongest natural fibre; absorbs and releases perspiration quickly; easily dyed; retains shape and drapes well but weakened by sunlight and perspiration
Synthetic Rayon Strong; extremely absorbent; soft and comfortable; made in a variety of qualities and weights but wrinkles easily
Acetate Crisp and soft; suitable for dyes and prints; shrink, moth and mildew resistant; low moisture absorbency and fast drying
Nylon Strong, lightweight, stretchable, and durable; dries quickly; easy to clean; resistant to abrasion and chemicals; does not absorb moisture well
Acrylic Lightweight, soft, and warm; dyes to bright colours; absorbs and releases moisture quickly; retain shape and resists shrinkage and wrinkles; hold pleats; resistant to moths, oils and chemical, and sunlight degradation
Polyester Strong, stretchable, and durable; does not wrinkle; dries quickly; does not absorb moisture
Weight Denier Low denier count Denier is a method for measuring the fineness of fibres, defined by the mass in grams per one strand of 9000 m fibre. High denier count fabrics tend to be thick, sturdy, and durable while low denier count fabrics tend to be sheer, soft, and silky Hindman (2013a), Standard Fiber (2020)
High denier count
Stitch density Low stitch density Stitch density is a measurement of the number of stitches per inch (SPI) of fabric as it passes from the entrance of a needle loom to the exit Hindman (2013b)
High stitch density
Weft density Low weft density Warp and weft are the two basic components used in weaving to turn thread or yarn into fabric. The adhesion force decreases when weft density increase Malengier et al. (2017), Mpofu et al. (2019, 2020), Narula et al. (2018)
High weft density
Warp linear density Low warp linear density The adhesion force increases when the linear density increase
High warp linear density
Pore properties Fine The pore properties include the pore size, pore size distribution, pore shape, and porosity determined by the fibre properties and structural properties, such as setting and weave type Eutionnat-Diffo et al. (2019), Ragab et al. (2017)
Surface Finish Mechanical Squished, Circe’ finish, brushed or knapped Korger et al. (2016), Meyer et al. (2019), Unger et al. (2018)
Chemical Polymer coating (i.e. PMMA coating), plasma treatment
Washing Washing agent, enzyme amylase
Texture Surface appearance Texture is defined by the surface appearance, structure, and thickness of the fabric. Texture is created by the fibre type, by weaving or knitting process, or by fabric finishes. Examples of textures include fuzzy, furry, soft, shiny, dull, bulky, rough, crisp, smooth, and sheer Sew Guide (2020)