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International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research

Table 1 Types of social crises

From: Global fashion retailers’ responses to external and internal crises during the COVID-19 pandemic

Types Examples
Political crisis War, armed protest, terrorism, and plane hijacking
Economic and technological crisis Spills of hazardous materials, marine pollution, water and air pollution, ozone depletion, radioactive effluent, acid rain, nuclear waste reclamation, building collapse, and explosions
Socio-cultural crisis Violent conflicts of race and region, pandemic outbreak, violent strikes, and riots
Disaster crisis Floods, typhoons, earthquakes, drought, heat waves, cold-weather damage, hail, and tsunamis