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International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research

Table 3 Measurement items and confirmatory factor analysis results (n = 251)

From: Can consumers’ gamified, personalized, and engaging experiences with VR fashion apps increase in-app purchase intention by fulfilling needs?

Measurement items in Chinese [translated into English] Factor loading AVE CR
Challenge   .52 .81
淘宝人生的困难等级适合我。
[The level of difficulty in Taobao Life is suitable for me.]
.66   
我的技能在淘宝人生的游戏过程中逐渐地得到提高。
[My skills gradually improve through the course of the game in Taobao Life.]
.71   
技能的提高赋予我动力。
[I am motivated by the improvement of my skills.]
.77   
淘宝人生按照适当的速度提供新的挑战。
[Taobao Life provides new challenges at an appropriate pace.]
.76   
Achievement   .60 .86
我玩淘宝人生是为了达到更高的等级。
[I play Taobao Life to achieve a higher level.]
.73   
我玩淘宝人生是为了拥有比别人更大的权利。
[I play Taobao Life to have more power than others.]
.73   
我玩淘宝人生是为了获得装备和/或物品, 从而获得比其他游戏玩家更高的身份。
[I play Taobao Life to have the equipment and/or items, which give me higher status than other players in the game.]
.84   
我玩淘宝人生是为了向其他游戏玩家证明我是最棒的。
[I play Taobao Life to prove to other players in the game that I am the best.]
.81   
Avatar customization   .51 .75
淘宝人生允许用户为自己的形象定制装备、配饰和装饰。
[Taobao Life enables users to customize the equipment, accessories, and decorations of their avatars.]
.72   
淘宝人生允许用户定制自己形象的外观。
[Taobao Life enables users to customize the appearance of their avatars.]
.70   
淘宝人生允许用户为自己的形象创建定制的商品和装备。
[Taobao Life enables users to create customized goods and equipment of their avatars.]
.71   
Avatar identification   .71 .91
我对我在淘宝人生中的形象有一种强烈的拥有感。
[I have a strong feeling of ownership toward my avatar in Taobao Life.]
.85   
我觉得我在淘宝人生中的形象是我自己的延伸。
[I feel that my avatar in Taobao Life is an extension of myself.]
.86   
我在淘宝人生中的形象给了我一种自我表达的方式。
[My avatar in Taobao Life provides me a kind of self-expression.]
.84   
我在淘宝人生中的形象对我来说极为重要。
[My avatar in Taobao Life is extremely important to me.]
.81   
Social presence   .66 .85
淘宝人生中有一种人际交往的感觉。
[There is a sense of human contact in Taobao Life.]
.82   
淘宝人生中有一种社交感 (用户可以交友) 。
[There is a sense of sociability in Taobao Life (users are companionable).]
.80   
淘宝人生中有一种人性的温暖感。
[There is a sense of human warmth in Taobao Life.]
.82   
Social support   .69 .90
如果淘宝人生中的用户是真人, 我完全可以信任他们。
[If the users in Taobao Life were real people, I could trust them completely.]
.80   
如果淘宝人生中的用户是真人, 他们可以在需要的时候依靠我。
[If the users in Taobao Life were real people, they would be able to count on me in times of need.]
.86   
如果淘宝人生中的用户是真人, 我会给予他们情感上的支持。
[If the users in Taobao Life were real people, I would give them emotional support.]
.81   
如果淘宝人生中的用户都是真人, 我会在需要的时候依靠他们。
[If the users in Taobao Life were real people, I would be able to count on them in times of need.]
.84   
Competence need fulfillment   .67 .89
我玩淘宝人生 的时候, 我觉得自己是一个有能力的人。
[I feel like a competent person when I am playing Taobao Life.]
.84   
我对自己玩淘宝人生的表现很满意。
[I am satisfied with my performance when I am playing Taobao Life.]
.82   
我觉得自己是淘宝人生虚拟世界的专家。
[I feel like an expert in the virtual world of Taobao Life.]
.77   
我认为自己在玩淘宝人生的时候表现很棒。
[I think that I am pretty good when I am playing Taobao Life.]
.84   
Autonomy need fulfillment   .64 .90
当我浏览淘宝人生的时候, 是因为我想浏览。
[When I visit Taobao Life, it is because I want to visit it.]
.72   
当我玩淘宝人生的时候, 我可以随心所欲地做自己。
[When I am playing Taobao Life, I feel free to be who I am.]
.83   
当我玩淘宝人生的时候, 我觉得我可以做自己。
[I feel I can be myself when I am playing Taobao Life.]
.86   
当我玩淘宝人生的时候, 我拥有发言权, 可以发表自己的意见。
[When I am playing Taobao Life, I have a say in what happens and can voice my opinion.]
.84   
当我玩淘宝人生的时候, 我可以从外界的压力中解脱出来。
[I feel free from outside pressures when I am playing Taobao Life.]
.74   
Relatedness need fulfillment   .73 .91
当我玩淘宝人生的时候, 我感觉得到了其他用户的支持。
[When I am playing Taobao Life, I feel supported by other users.]
.87   
当我玩淘宝人生的时候, 我感觉自己得到了别人的理解。
[When I am playing Taobao Life, I feel that I am understood.]
.87   
当我玩淘宝人生的时候, 我感觉自己是一个对别人有价值的人。
[When I am playing Taobao Life, I feel that I am a valuable person to others.]
.84   
当我玩淘宝人生的时候, 我感觉别人留心我的所言所行。
[When am playing Taobao Life, I feel like other people care what I have to say and what I do.]
.83   
Intention to continuously use a VR fashion app   .83 .94
我打算以后一直玩淘宝人生。
[I intend to keep playing Taobao Life in the future.]
.88   
我打算继续玩淘宝人生。
[I intend to continue playing Taobao Life.]
.92   
我相信自己以后会玩淘宝人生。
[I believe I will play Taobao Life in the future.]
.94   
Intention to make in-app purchases   .49 .66
我想在淘宝商城上购物。
[I would like to purchase on Taobao app.]
.75   
我会考虑以后在淘宝商城上购物。
[I would consider purchasing on Taobao app in the future.]
.65   
  1. AVE Average variance extracted, CR composite reliability