- Open Access
Performance assessment of fragrance finished cotton with cyclodextrin assisted anchoring hosts
© Khanna et al. 2015
- Received: 15 June 2015
- Accepted: 13 August 2015
- Published: 5 October 2015
Infusion of textiles with aromatic essential oils makes them immense value enriched for the aesthetic dominated fashion consumers to attain cosmeto-therapeutic and medicinal benefits. However, longevity of aroma on the textile with the time passage and subsequent launderings is a major concern for researchers and consumers too. In this work, essential oils of Eucalyptus, Peppermint, Lavender, Jasmine, Clove and Cedarwood were applied directly on cotton as well as with anchoring hosts as cyclodextrin in native and modified form viz. monochlorotriazine-β-cyclodextrin (MCT-βCD) to assess their stability of retention on the fabric surface. The release rate of oils, in isolation, had revealed the disappearance of fragrances rapidly with time as a result of weak physical forces between essential oils and textile surfaces in the absence of any anchoring hosts. MCT-β-CD showed enhanced fragrance stability with added advantage of exhibiting no major change in tensile strength, stiffness and air permeability of cotton.
- Aromatic essential oil
- Anchoring hosts
With rising global trends and changing lifestyles in terms of fashion, beauty as well as healthcare, awareness of consumers has enforced evolution of speciality value added textiles. The addition of essential oils on textiles makes the wearer afresh and relaxed by the unique aromas of oils (Eugenio et al. 2005). Though the effect is relatively short-lived, no matter how eminent the technology used to impart aroma may be employed. By using microencapsulation technique, the retention of aroma on textiles has been proved to improve (Wang and Chen 2004), offering diversified opportunities for the improvement of aesthetics through application of additional compounds as aromas, dyes, antimicrobial agents and phase changing materials through binder application with good wash durability (Chinta and Pooja 2013; Nelson 2002; Yamato et al. 1993), though some disadvantages such as non-uniformity in microcapsule distribution throughout the textile, monotonous core compounds, requirement of external stimuli, immense skill of capsule formulation and high expensive are all associated with this technique of aroma finishing. As an alternative, cyclodextrins (CDs) are a promising class of universal molecular containers.
CDS are cyclic oligosaccharides produced with the transformation of starch by bacteria’s such as Bacillus macerans (Astray et al. 2009; Jeang et al. 2005). These are capable of forming inclusion compounds with hydrophobic substances (Valle 2003) and found in different forms viz. consisting of six α-CD, seven β-CD, eight γ-CD and various other derivatives, such as δ, ζ, ξ, θ and ή-cyclodextrins or more glucopyranose units linked by α-(1, 4) bonds (Aggrawal and Warmoeskerken 2008; Lo et al. 2003; Martel 2002a, b; Ribeiro et al. 2008). The most notable feature of CDs is their ability to form solid inclusion complexes (host–guest complexes) with a very wide range of solid, liquid and gaseous compounds by molecular complexation. Complex formation between host and guest is a dimensional fit between host cavity and guest molecule in which no covalent bonds are broken or formed during formation of the inclusion complex and hydrophobic interactions might be the main driving forces for CD-based host–guest compounds (Lo et al. 2003; Ribeiro et al. 2008). Since each guest molecule is individually surrounded by a cyclodextrin (derivative) the molecule is micro-encapsulated from a microscopic point of view, this property of β-cyclodextrin can be utilized in finishing of textiles like antimicrobial finish, aroma finishing and flame retardant finishing (Eugenio et al. 2005). The purification of α- and γ-CDs increases the cost of production considerably, so that 97 % of the CDs used commercially are β-CDs (Jeang et al. 2005).
β-CD can be incorporated onto textile by means of spraying, printing, padding, grafting, surface coating, impregnation, ink jet printing and via sol gel (Aggrawal and Warmoeskerken 2008; Martel 2002a, b). Many novel techniques such as grafting with cross-linking agents and use of resin binders has been investigated to fix β-CD to fibres like cotton, wool, polyester, polyamide and polyacrylonitrile (Andreaus 2010; Cabrales et al. 2012; Ciobanu et al. 2013; Dehabadi et al. 2013; Hebeish and El-Hilw 2001; Ibrahim et al. 2007; Martel 2002a, b; Sricharussin et al. 2009; Velaz et al. 2007; Voncina and Marechal 2005). Resins such as epicholorohydrin had been used to fix β-CD to cellulose (Hebeish and El-Hilw 2001) and polyester (Ciobanu et al. 2013). The adherence of reactive cyclodextrins such as monochlorotriazinyl (MCT) chloride along with butyl acrylate to cellulose fibres has been reported too (Cabrales et al. 2012; Ibrahim et al. 2007; Sricharussin et al. 2009; Velaz et al. 2007). Dyeing and easy care finish could be achieved by using a formulation containing a reactive dye, MCT-β-CD and a resin (Bereck 2010; Crini 2003; Parlati et al. 2007; Szetjli 1998).
However, the investigation on stability of fragrant essential oils on treated substrates in the absence as well as presence of anchoring hosts has been lacking a systematic approach in the earlier reported works. Along with, the effect of employing anchors as MCT-β-cyclodextrin on to the substrate’s physical and functional performance had been reported scarcely. Thus, the necessity of imparting durable fragrance finishing with the consideration of its influence on the performance of the treated cotton is immensely vital.
Thus, the present work deals with the application of a variety of essential oils on cotton in non-complexed form i.e. in free State, complexed state with β-cyclodextrin and derivative viz. MCT-β-CD, followed by the study of their post-release behaviour to assess the stability of the aroma on cotton. Performance of essential oils complexed with MCT-β-CD as well as its impact on the physical properties of finished cotton had also been investigated.
Application of essential oils on cotton
Solutions of essential oils, viz. eucalyptus, peppermint, lavender Jasmine, clove & cedarwood (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 %) were prepared in 100 % ethanol carrier. Cotton was treated with oil-ethanol solutions by the use of spray gun at 4 kg/cm2 pressure followed by air drying. The content of essential oil left on cotton was extracted after stipulated time with ethanol heated at 60 °C and spectrophotometrically assessed at respective λmax (lavender oil—LO, 344 nm; eucalyptus oil—EO, 270 nm; peppermint oil—PO, 240 nm; jasmine oil—JO, 264 nm; clove oil—CO, 282 nm and cedarwood oil—CdO, 306 nm) to evaluate the fragrance release rate. The use of ethanol for oil extraction is encouraged due to the ease of spectroscopic evaluation of residual oil content present in treated cotton and thereby, indirect investigation of the released aroma in air; which is otherwise difficult to account.
Solubility of β-cyclodextrin
The solubility of β-cyclodextrin (10–100 g/L) was studied in water, ethanol (100 %) and NaOH (1–10 g/L) separately at room temperature.
Optimisation of β-CD and oil concentration
The oil concentration was optimised as- Cotton (0.1 g) previously treated with optimised concentration of β-CD, was kept in all the essential oil solutions (1–15 %, prepared in ethanol) for 1 h at room temperature, after which the treated cotton was discarded and the absorbance of each residual oil solution was checked at respective λmax for the evaluation of complexed oil in the solution. The stability of oils on cotton was evaluated for specific time, viz. for 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 72 h.
MCT-β-cyclodextrin (MCT β-CD): synthesis, characterisation and application
Release rate of essential oils
Also, clove, cedarwood & peppermint were released much faster than lavender and Jasmine from the treated surface due to their olfactory character as peppermint and cedarwood are the top-feeble notes of the oils that faded away at the fastest pace to provide initial scents but lavender and jasmine are the base note of the oil that lasted the longest.
Solubility of β-cyclodextrin
Optimization of β-CD concentration
The weight of cotton increased in the array of 1.03–6.23 % with increase in applied β-CD concentration up to 70 g/L, without any substantial change at 80–100 g/L (6.42–6.83 %). The inclusion compound formation with phenolphthalein had shown maximum color change at minimum absorbance (0.027) with β-CD (70 g/L), but lesser complex formation had taken place between β-CD and phenolphthalein between 80 and 100 g/L. The minimum absorbance of β-CD (70 g/L) was related to the maximum extent of complex formation between β-CD and phenolphthalein molecules but beyond 80 g/L up to 100 g/L, the cavities were not available for more complex formation with the phenolphthalein molecules, further related to the increased absorbance of the solution. Thus, β-CD at optimized concentration, i.e. 70 g/L was taken for oil optimization.
Optimization of concentration of essential oils
Oil concentrations used for complex formation with native β-CD
Oil concentration (%)
Essential oil used (mg/ml)
Stability of inclusion complex of β-CD and essential oils
Characterisation of MCT-βCD
The Graft yield of MCT-βCD on cotton was measured at variable pH in terms of weight gain of cotton due to graft polymerization according to Eq. 2. It was inferred that the weight gain was more in alkaline but lesser in acidic pH due to lesser stability of MCT-βCD in the latter. In addition, a yellowing of cotton was observed with alkaline pH. A linear increase in weight of functionalised cotton had occurred up to 13.46 % (at pH 8), followed by a slight decrease at higher pH values due to the hydrolysis of excess MCT-β-CD. Sodium carbonate might have influenced the fixation of MCT-β-CD up to pH ~8, beyond which it decreased due to hydrolysis of MCT-β-CD. Also, in acidic pH, exothermic reaction took place and after keeping solution overnight, pH might have stabilized.
Elemental analysis of MCT-βCD, control cotton and MCT-βCD treated cotton
MCT-βCD treated cotton (70 g/L)
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
1H-nuclear magnetic resonance studies
Chemical and induced shifts of protons of β-CD and Peppermint in free and complexed states
Induced shift Δδ
δ β-CD free
(δβ-CD free − δ*C)
δ P free
(δ P free − δ*C)
Effect of the modified cyclodextrin and native β-CD on physical and functional performance of cotton
Effect of modified CD and native β-CD on physical performance of cotton
Air permeability (cm3/cm2/s)
Stiffness and air permeability
The stiffness and air permeability of functionalized cotton with MCT-βCD and native β-CD were compared with those of control (Table 4). It was evident that the bending length increased for both treatments but substantial increase was found in bending rigidity of MCT treated samples than native β-CD because of the presence of monochlorotriazine derivative of cyclodextrin (containing cyanuric chloride) as a conventional cross-linking agent. On the other, at MCT (pH 12), air permeability was the minimum and for acidic pH with MCT-βCD, air permeability was least affected. The pH-8 for MCT-β-CD was chosen to study the release rate of oils from the fragranced cotton due to the increase in tensile strength along with highest weight gain retention with wash durability up to five washes.
Release rate of essential oils from the functionalised cotton and oil alone treated cotton
Release of essential oils from functionalized cotton and oil alone treated cotton
Essential oils (10 %) [70 g/L βCD/70 g/L MCT-βCD]
The application of essential oils without any form of anchoring hosts lasted for only few hours due to weak forces of interaction between the oils and cotton. Application of β-Cyclodextrin alone has resulted in slower but prolonged release of oils. The application of MCT-βCD had outstand with highly durable essential oil retention lasting for five or more washes and also for longer span. Thus, MCT β-CD proved to be a more valuable host for durable functionalised fabrics. The tensile strength had shown an increase with MCT β-CD (pH 6 and 8); on the other, air permeability had shown a fall and stiffness had increased but moreover, the stability of oils had increased with the modified host. Thus, new genre of novel apparel products having customised aroma can be designed and developed for the fashion savvy consumers.
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